Petit Trianon - The Flutes

At the end of the 17th century the one keyed conical "flute traversiere" established itself in numerous models and then found its successor in the conical multi-keyed flute in the middle of the 18th century.
This flute can by distinguished by its sound from the baroque flute through a higher and stronger tune. By using the keys, an improved and more balanced chromaticism can be achieved.
There were, however, extensive disagreements amongst the flute makers at the time with respect to the loss of the specific refinements of the baroque fork fingering in opposition to the newly acquired possibilities of the keyed flute as far as the tune was concerned.

Flutes used in the Petit Trianon:

J. Denner ca. 1720 a=415 Hz, copy by R. Tutz
As far as we can judge, this flute possesses those qualities which are described by J.J. Quantz in his "attempt to instruct how to play the flute traversiere": i.e. a "high, cutting, round, male yet pleasing tune".

C. Palanca approx. 1740 a=415 Hz, copy by G. Kowalewski
Carlo Palanca worked in Milan and Turin from 1725-1770. This flute provides the advantage of a slightly stronger tune in comparison to the flute models by J. Denner.

H. Grenser ca. 1780/90 a=430 Hz the 4- and around 1800 the 8-keyed classic flute, copy by R.Tutz
The four-keyed flute made of grenadill wood can be used superbly for classical chamber and orchestra music because of its clear, slightly glass-like sound. The eight-keyed model is then used for the later repertoire. The higher number of keys reduces the necessity of fork fingerings and does therefore not only lead to an easier way to play technically, but additionally serves the need for the burgeoning romantic to provide a more brilliant and more balanced tune.

Aug. Bleszner ca. 1840, Pest a=435 Hz multi keyed
conical flute

A. Gedligzka ca. 1840, Prag a=440-455 Hz multi keyed
conical flute

Dobner & Consort ca. 1800, Straßburg a=430 Hz

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The Flutes